In the spirit of just-in-time resources, here’s a collection of the simple, yet powerful, techniques that you can use to be a more effective product person.
Acceptance criteria are the conditions that a solution must satisfy to be accepted by a user, a customer, or, in the case of system-level functionality, the consuming system. They are also a set of statements, each with a clear pass/fail result, that specify both functional and nonfunctional requirements and are applicable at a variety of levels (feature and user stories).
Business Value Model
The business value model is a technique for making critical organizational decisions in an informed and timely manner. Teams using this tool identify the most critical decisions they face, determine when they need to make those decisions, and figure out which information they need to best make those decisions.
Collaborative modeling refers to the use of well-known requirements analysis and modeling techniques in a collaborative fashion to build and maintain a shared understanding of the problem space and the potential solution.
The commitment scale gauges a stakeholder’s commitment to a project, as well as what is needed to ensure the project’s success.
The constraints matrix is a quick way to show the relative importance of a set of constraints facing a project team. Each row represents a general constraint faced by most teams. The most common set to use are: Cost, Time, and Scope (ie the Iron Triangle). The columns represent the amount of change that can be accepted for each constraint when trying to deal with an overall project change.
The context diagram shows how your product interacts with outside people, organizations, and/or systems. The context diagram helps you to identify the interfaces you need to account for, helps you to identify scope, identify potential stakeholders, and build a better understanding of the context in which you are working.
Context Leadership Model
The Context Leadership Model is a tool for determining the appropriate project leadership style given a product’s uncertainty and complexity.
Decision filters are simple questions that help organizations distribute decision making by sharing strategy with those who have to act to make them happen.
Definition of Done
The definition of done is an agreement on the set of conditions that need to be true in order to consider a backlog item done and at a point where it can deliver value to stakeholders.
Definition of Ready
A definition of ready is an agreement on the set of conditions that need to be true in order to consider a backlog item ready to be included in an iteration for delivery.
A delivery board is a way for a team to visualize their process for delivering functionality in a sprint. The best delivery boards consist of a whiteboard or wall divided into columns that reflect the various steps a team takes to develop and test backlog items in a sprint. The backlog items are represented by sticky notes or cards that move across the board as the team gets closer to having functionality to deliver.
Discovery boards are ways for teams to visualize their backlog refinement process. The best discovery boards consist of a whiteboard or wall divided into columns that reflect the various steps a team takes to get product backlog items ready to be delivered (developed and tested) in an iteration. The backlog items are represented by sticky notes or cards that move across the board as the team builds a better understanding of the specifics of each story.
Examples are concrete descriptions of the expected behavior of an aspect of a solution using real-life data. Examples are useful for describing a solution and providing guidance on ways to validate it.
Teams use impact mapping to discuss assumptions, align with organizational objectives and deliver only the things that lead directly to delivering outcomes.
Internal Product Opportunity Assessment
The internal product opportunity assessment is based off questions in Inspired by Marty Cagan. They help product people determine if a product is worth it.
An internal product is software that your organization does not offer for sale to others, but uses to support its various business activities. Internal products generally satisfy the needs of users internal to your organization or enables your organization to satisfy the needs of its customers.
Parking Lot Diagram
A parking lot diagram is a way to visually communicate status of work on a product in the context of major blocks of functionality intended to deliver a specific outcome.
A persona defines a typical user of a product. They help you understand the context in which people use the product to help guide your design decisions.
The problem statement is a structured set of statements that describe the purpose of an effort in terms of what problem it’s trying to solve.
This technique brief introduces process models, describes when they are helpful and explains how use them to understand a process and build a backlog.
Purpose Based Alignment Model
The Purpose Based Alignment Model, created by Niel Nickolaisen, is a method for aligning business decisions and process and feature designs around purpose.
Retrospectives are a way for your team to reflect on your past cycle of work, discuss what you’ve learned, identify specific action items to pursue, and follow through on those action items.
Risk Management Game
The risk management game is a collaborative way for your team to identify risks that they face, categorize those risks based on impact and probability, and determine which risks to address first.
The six questions help you to understand your organization’s strategy by identifying its differentiating activities. This can then guide product decisions.
Socratic questioning applied to projects and product development relates to finding the real need by establishing a thesis of what your stakeholder thinks their need is (usually expressed as a solution). You then engage in a dialog structured as a series of questions in an attempt to refute or disprove the thesis and get to the actual need.
You can use a stakeholder map to understand who your stakeholders are, understand their key characteristics, and determine how to engage your stakeholders.
A story map is a visual representation of a backlog that shows how backlog items are related to each other and when the team is planning to deliver them.
System documentation is information about an as-built solution and acts as a reference for future maintenance or update efforts. It is organized based on system functionality rather than when changes were made to the system, making it easier for people who maintain the solution to find the information they need quickly.
User modeling is a technique used to establish a commonly agreed-upon list of user roles for a product. This list of user roles and their descriptions provides helpful context for user stories and other backlog items. You can think of user modeling as one aspect of stakeholder analysis that is specifically focused on people interacting with a product or receiving value from it
Value Based Decision Making
Value-based decision making is a method for making critical organizational decisions in an informed and timely manner. Use this tool to identify the most critical decisions you face, determine when to decide, and ﬁgure out what information you need to best make those decisions.